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Equity and Inclusion in Education


Rural Development Centre Nepal has been implementing Equity and Inclusion in Education program since May 2019 in coordination and collaboration with 4 Municipalities; they are Rajpur, Baudhimai, Maulapur and Katahariya Municipality. The program was supported by UNICEF and World Education Inc. The main motive of the program is to capacitate schools so that all working schools can provide quality early grade education (Grades 1-3) especially for the most disadvantaged children including those with disabilities.

Major Activities Implemented:

In coordination and collaboration with district level authorities and 4 working municipalities i.e., Rajpur, Bauhdimai, Maulapur and Katahariya Rural Development Center Nepal, Rautahat is implementing Equity and Inclusion education: Early grade reading program with aim to capacitate schools so that all working schools can provide quality early grade education (grades 1-3) especially for the most disadvantaged children including those with disabilities, and who do not speak Nepali language at home.

Throughout the year, various activities were carried out by learning motivators and program staffs; such as local and school level planning workshops, Learning camps,  program orientation with teachers, parents and local level stakeholders and their involvement for learning improvements, classroom support technically, data and information collection of CWDs and sitting arrangement and classroom management for inclusive education, classroom interaction, 5 days basic teacher training, Joint monitoring, mobile meeting, learning fair, Bloom workshop, etc. The overall objectives of the events were to create enabling environment for students (along with disability) to enroll and retain in school and also improve learning achievements.  

1.1  Inclusive Education

1.1.1      Mother tongue as the Medium of Instruction 

All 65 schools from 4 working municipalities are conducting teaching and learning activities in mother tongue i.e, Bajika. They are using Bajika as a medium of instruction while teaching as per government’s guideline. Altogether 132 teachers where 73 male and 59 females were capacitated on MoI, mother tongue-based medium of instruction through 5 days basic teacher training during the quarter. Through the training they were made realized on importance of carrying out learning activities in mother tongue in early grades. Along with that, 12 teachers (male: – 10 and female: – 2) were also capacitated through BLOOM (local writers capacity enhancement) workshop where participants were oriented on Bloom software and enhanced their skills to develop books on Bajika. As a result, they had prepared more than 70 and were waiting eagerly to use them while teaching in schools.

Teachers have been using mother tongue as a medium to make students clear on subject matter while teaching. They used to teach only in Bajika or in Nepali before but, after participating in training they have started giving examples for hard words using locally available materials such as broom and other EGL materials provided by EIE program like reading cards, picture cards, etc. Teachers along with parents and other major stakeholders were also regularly oriented and aware on importance of uses of mother tongue for early grade students through SMC/PTAs meeting, learning fair, mobile meeting and other informal meetings. Likewise, project team are regularly visiting schools and advocating, influencing and motivating teachers to use mother tongue as a medium of instructions especially for early grade readers using EGL materials and developing materials in local level.    

Teaching learning activities and uses of materials;

  1. Carrying teaching and learning activities dividing students in separate groups
  2. Uses of locally available resources and materials used in daily basis to given them knowledge and concept on general usable materials
  3. Uses of picture cards, game cards and other story books for learning improvements by translating hard words and paragraphs into Bajika

For advocacy and awareness raising activities;

  1. Learning motivators have emphasized on carrying out learning activities especially on mother tongue for early grade students via every platform such as SMC/PTAs meeting, mobile meeting and learning fairs

1.1.2      Co-ordination with GP/NP/Education unit

Throughout the period, 4 local level planning workshops and coordination visits were made as per need. Local level planning workshop was conducted with motive to sensitized local level stakeholders on real scenario of municipality on education especially EGL and to prepare joint action plan for the improvements of it. During workshops, participants were supported to analyze the situation of Early grade students and education status in their respective wards/municipality. Afterwards, they were request by facilitators Mr. Sushil Jha/Thapa to point out one-one problems regarding EGR from each ward and pointed out on newsprint. Then, they were supported to convert the problems in an activity. Likewise, Draft action plan was prepared to mitigate EGR related issues and for the improvements of EGR status. Through the workshops, commitments were collected from local level stakeholders to incorporate prepared action plan in their annual action plan for effective and efficient implementation of planned activities.

Figure 1: Details of participants during local level planning workshop

Major Achievements;

  • Altogether, 127 participants form wards and municipalities attended the workshop where 23 were female and 104 were male.
  • Shared overall programs objectives, activities and expected supported from related authorities
  • Being able to sensitized local level authorities to invest on EGR
  • Prepared action plan and collected commitments to segregate budget for Early Grade Readings


  • Delay in participants’ participation
  • Lack of presence of all targeted stakeholders

Along with that learning motivators visited respective wards and municipalities for more than 500 times for coordination and collaboration for smooth and effective operations. Along with that, PO and PC are also coordinating and collaborating with local government as per need. Till the date, program team have been able to segregate budget for EGL activities such as Learning fair (school and municipal), classroom interaction, enrollment campaign, etc. from 2 municipalities (i.e. Rajpur and Baudhimai Municipality). Local level government as a core stakeholders and partners for program, EIE team have been working closely with them before conducting an activity. They are playing active role in their respective field; they have also attended some urgent meeting held for CORONA outbreak. Program team are in regular coordination with 4 working municipalities for status update due to pandemic and school opening dates and enrollment campaigns.  

1.1.3      Teachers Trained to provide inclusive EGL instruction

(Basic and Refresher Trainings/mobile meeting/Classroom support)

To enhanced teacher’s skill to provide inclusive EGL and mother tongue-based medium of instructions, school level planning workshops, teachers 5 days basic training, bloom workshop and mobile meetings were conducted throughout the year.

Figure 2: Participants details of 5 Days Basic Teacher training

 a. 5 Days Basic Teacher Training

Out of 6, 5 events of 5 Days Basic Teachers training were conducted in coordination and collaboration with Katahariya, Maulapur, Baudhimia and Rajpur Municipalities, District Education and Coordination Unit targeting Early Grade Teaching teachers basically Nepali and Math from working schools during the year.

Training was conducted with motive to capacitate teachers on Early Grade Reading and Math, Inclusive Education, Mother tongues-based medium of instructions and Continuous Assessment System thoroughly along with their learning process and importance in learning improvements. The methodologies followed during training were power point presentation, group work and discussions, gallery walk, micro teaching and material observation. The overall training was conducted using EGL materials. Trainers were also emphasized on group discussion and uses of EGR and EGL materials for effective and interactive training rather than thorough presentation which made a training to participatory. Altogether 132 teachers from Katahariya, Maulapur, Baudhimai and Rajpur Municipalities were capacitated on the subject matters or content. There were 59 female and 73 teacher participants. During the training, participants were also provided opportunities to do mock sessions using material which had helped them to sharpen their facilitation skills as well. 

Most of the participant teachers are using “I Do, We Do and You Do” techniques while teaching along with that they are also using EGL materials such as reading cards for phonological and phonics awareness, picture story cards for story making and writing and also small story books for reading fluency. They have been using such materials in regular basis. Some of the teachers are using flex chart in lower classes like ECD and 1 to make students aware on alphabets and their writing structures. And some of the teachers have found prepared sponge stand board by on their own to make teaching easy pasting sponge letter in it.

Many participants have reported that they haven’t attended such interesting training which had played a stepping stone for effective teaching learning. And, the pre and post-test were also collected from each participant for evaluating effectiveness and their learning throughout training.

Process and methodologies;

  1. Dates and venue finalization
  2. Coordination with DECU, municipalities and schools
  3. Letter distribution from municipalities via learning motivators
  4. Training opening session (welcome and introduction)
  5. Power point presentation for principal and theories related matter
  6. Group work/discussions
  7. Role play or demo class
  8. Gallery walks  
  9. Video presentations (on subject matters such as MGML, mother tongue based of instruction, etc.)
  10. Closing remarks with commitments

Major achievements were;

  • Enhanced participants knowledge and skills on EGL, CAS and importance of mother-tongue based medium of instructions,
  • Oriented on effective uses of EGL materials while carrying out teaching learning activities,
  • Enhanced knowledge and skills regarding inclusive education, creation of child friendly environment inside the school for retention and sitting arrangements for learning improvements,

Lesson learnt;

  • Participants should be provided certificates of appreciation or training,
  • Better to provided min. standard of stipend for such long trainings for active participation,
  • Scheduled should be revised with one action plan development session for effective implementation in field,

Skills enhanced on teachers;

  • Giving more priority for differently able students.
  • Engaging students in external project work and maximizing the utilization of local resources and research.
  • Giving more priority on vernacular languages.
  • Co-educational classroom management on the basis of age, class and their abilities.
  • Providing facility to students to use the required resources.

b. Mobile meeting

During the year, 7 mobile meeting were conducted targeting early grade teachers. The meeting was conducted with motive to made discussions on status after dispatchment of materials and their uses, status of inclusive education and medium of instruction inside school after 5 days basic training. These meeting were conducted in cluster level by respective learning motivators.

Figure 3: Table contains participants details of mobile meeting.

As per above diagram, total number of participants were 115 where 60 were male and 55 were females’ teachers from working schools of different 7 cluster. The meeting was conducted in coordination and collaboration with leader (organizer) school and participants.

Major achievements;

  • Sharing and learning platforms for teachers regarding initiatives and best practices,
  • Teachers committed to work for inclusive and quality education to make school a model one,

Lesson learnt;

  • Creation of sharing and learning environment from one another,
  • It would be better if such events should be carried out in a quarterly basis,

1.1.4      Identification of Children with Disabilities / IEP development and use

Throughout the quarter, 35 children with disabilities or differently abled are identified from 65 working schools, especially reading in class 1-3. All field level staffs have collected the complete information regarding CWD being based on developed standard format. According to the teachers and learning motivators, Children with Disabilities have been enrolled in schools but there is no any specific support and services along with skilled teacher from government to support them in retention. Learning motivators and program team are influencing and support teachers to teach CWD by preparing IEPs. According to teachers, they will start carrying out teaching learning activities by preparing IEPs from next educational year 2077.

1.2 Multi Grade and Multi-Level Learning (MGML)

(Classroom management, pedagogy, teaching learning activities, learning materials)

Most of the schools with huge number of students but a smaller number of classrooms and teachers are adopting only multi grade teaching practices. Through the school visit and discussion with teachers, this practice has been adopted just to manage the scare rather making classes effective and systematic for students to improve their learning. Till the date, more than 45 schools are adopting MGML practice indirectly.

Schools are conducting teaching learning process by arranging sitting of separate class in sperate row.  And they have been carrying out learning activities by forming different groups with the help of EGL materials. Some of the small schools have adopted peer teaching style where they made pairs of 2 students (talent and student with learning difficulties) and create environment to learn from one another through the uses of EGL materials. 

Project staffs are regularly coordinating with local level stakeholders and school management committee along with parents to make multi grade teaching systematic and effective or provision of basic requirements (infrastructure and wash facilities). Project team are emphasizing on sitting arrangements, uses of locally available resources and create child friendly spaces for effective and interactive learning environment. They have been lobbying for regular and effective uses of EGL materials for learning improvements.     

1.3          Child Centered Education

1.3.1      SMCs and PTA trained on addressing inclusion, medium of instruction and improved learning outcomes within their SIP

Till the date no any specific training were organized for enhancing capacity of SMC and PTAs under the project but, learning motivators have completed 50 informal meeting with SMC/PTAs and local level stakeholders where they oriented major stakeholders on inclusive education, medium of instruction in

Figure 4:  Program orientation for SMC/PTA, teachers and local level stakeholders

mother-tongue and their involvement in learning improvements.

Throughout the period, 50 orientation at school level were conducted by Learning motivators where 406 were male participants whereas 267 were female. Learning motivators have focused on incorporation SMC/PTAs roles and responsibility in learning improvements of students and also development or revision of SIP/SSDP incorporating EGL related activities for effective and smooth implementation of various EGL improvement activities.  


  1. Coordinated with schools to finalize dates for meeting
  2. Informed the major stakeholders via letter or phone
  3. Discussed on pre-determined agenda’s (program orientation, status of SIP, roles and responsibility division)


  1. Commitments from stakeholders to support school in SIP preparation and budget segregation for its effective implementation
  2. Major stakeholders were oriented on program, its objective and activities  

1.3.2      EGL Activity – School Improvement Plan (SIP)

(School developed/revised addressing inclusion, medium of instruction and improved learning outcomes)

Most of the schools are in process to revise SIP/SSDP. Learning motivators are encouraging frequently to develop/revise the SIP including EGL activities determined from school level planning workshop. Rajpur municipality have prepared SSDP including EGL related activities and code of conduct for EGL improvements and they are in process to share to each school and collect from them for effective and smooth activity implementation for learning improvements. Likewise, project staffs are motivating and supporting other working palika’s as well to develop and implement SIP/SSDP. Most of school have reported that they all are in process to develop SIP/SSDP. According to them, due to the lack of monitoring and support from municipalities schools are facing problems while developing SIP. They added their skills should be enhanced through trainings for SIP development and revision.


  1. Coordinated with school for date finalization
  2. Informed parents and other local level stakeholders regarding meeting
  3. Agenda finalization
  4. Conduction of meeting based of pre-determined agenda’s

Major achievements;

  1. Discussed on roles and responsibility parents, community people and other major stakeholders should bear to make school a better place.
  2. Stakeholders along with school have committed to arrange such meeting in a frequent basis.
  3. School have decided to form a working committee from next meeting and soon developed SIP incorporating the voices of community people and students. 

And also, for the improvements of learning on early grade students, 15 learning camps were conducted in different wards inside 4 working municipalities with objective to engage students in learning activities during long holidays. Altogether 15 learning camps were conducted in different 15 wards inside working municipalities where 458 children were participants (male: -152 and female: – 311). These camps were led by local volunteers/primary level teachers. Many parents were also found involved in the camps to observe and support their children to learn during field observation visits on 7th August 2019. According to the parents involved in the camp, children used to go for swimming in pond, canal and go for fishing but after the conduction of Learning Camp in village they have started gathering in a group for learning and sharing activity. They further added, children have been supported to read and writer as well as to express their inner skills.  

Figure 5: Details of learning camp and participants

1.3.3      Head Teacher Involvement in school level planning and implementation

Figure 6: Participants details of school level planning workshop

Head Teachers from all working schools inside 4 municipalities have actively involved in school level planning workshop. Education focal person/coordinator from working municipalities were also participated in the workshop.


  1. Coordinated with municipalities and schools for active participation
  2. Oriented on EGR and EIE program
  3. Discussed on issued faced by schools along with SWOT analysis especially targeting Early grades
  4.  Prepared draft action plan to mitigate issues utilizing opportunities and strengths

During the workshop, discussion was made of issues faced by school for quality early grade learning. Major issued shared by them are as follows;

  1. Lack of basic infrastructure such as classrooms, child friendly desk/benches, learning materials, etc.,
  2. Lack of teachers/skilled teachers,
  3. No proper guidelines and policies by municipalities for smooth running and operation of schools,
  4. Political influences inside school,   

Through the workshop, each participant has reflected the ground scenario and situation of school as well as way out for learning improvements in early grades. According to education coordinator and municipality, they have motivated and encouraged to prepare realistic and relevant activities to improve learning regularly via SIP/SSDP but, due to lack of proper action plans they are facing problems related infrastructure and other. Hence, to mitigate such problems and improve learnings on early grade students, participants prepared action plan focusing inclusive education, mother tongue-based medium of instruction, effective early learning, etc.

1.3.4      Parents engagement in learning related school activities

(Holiday Learning camps, reading mela, learning environment at home, local material development, IEP development)

During the quarter, 4 school level learning fair and 2 SMC/PTAs along with other stakeholders meeting was conducted. Huge number of parents were invited in learning fairs. They all observed learning fair along with their children, made discussions on EGL materials and their effective uses. Altogether 690 parents along with other local level stakeholders participated the fair. Through the fair, they were sensitized on their regular engagement in school and meeting for overall improvements of education system and learning improvements in children.

The fair was managed in coordination and collaboration with school and wards. Some of the activities targeting children, parents and teachers were conducted such as joint stall observation, orientation on materials and their uses with the help of teachers who participated in training, interaction among parents, teachers and local level stakeholders on importance of MOI and inclusive education, various games such as word and picture matching using games and reading cards, place value game using number dice, etc.

Through the fair, they have realized that children should taught in an interactive way by playing, observing the things rather than being in classroom only as before. And also, from SMC/PTAs meeting, some of present active parents were requested to take part in every meeting call by school and support them for betterment of school and quality education.


  1. Coordination with school, wards and community
  2. Planning meeting with school, SMC/PTAs and local level authorities
  3. Letter preparation and distribution to major stakeholders
  4. Arrangements of stalls, snacks and other as per plan
  5. Opening speech from head teacher and local level stakeholders
  6. Cultural program by students
  7. Joint stall observations and interactions
  8. Games using EGL and other locally available materials
  9. Interaction on importance of MOI and inclusive education  
  10. Closing with commitments from parents and other stakeholders to engage regularly in learning activities and support children in home


  • More than 600 parents, community people and local level stakeholders participated in 4 learning fairs.
  • Parents, community people and local level stakeholders have realized the importance of such fair for learning improvements and exposure for children.
  • Local level stakeholders, wards and municipalities along with schools have committed to incorporate separate heading for learning mela in Yearly Development Plan (YDP).

Major challenges faced during fair;

  • Hard to manage the crowed due to huge number of children in school,
  • There is no budget in school and no internal source of income for the management of such fair and provision from program is also low,
  • No proper or standard guidelines (process should be explained clearly) to achieve targeted goal/objectives,

 Way forward;

  • Development of standard guideline for systematic and output-oriented fair from donor and implementing partner,
  • Coordinate with local level stakeholders, wards and municipalities for segregation of budget fair,

1.4  Early Grade Learning Outcomes (EGRA and EGMA)

Before the implementation of program, some of the events were carried out, EGRA and EGMA survey is one of them. EGRA/EGMA, base-line survey was conducted in 6 schools with the objectives to track out the educational scenario of schools and students reading in grade 2-4.


  1. Coordinated with schools selected through sampling method,
  2. Selection of students through sampling method,
  3. Asked questionnaire from the set of pre-determined questions related to reading components of Nepal and Math,
  4.  Recorded answers in tablets,
  5. Submitted to related authority via provided link for evaluation     

Through the survey and interaction with students being based on pre-set questionnaire, they were found frail in these subjects. To support for the improvements of early grade learning, teachers were provided 5 days basic teacher training and distributed EGL materials in all working schools. Through the training, teachers were also capacitated on CAS by which they can easily track out the learning improvements on students and conduct learning activities by preparing action plans. Some of the teachers have already started conduct teaching and learning activities by doing CAS and dividing students in different groups according to their learnings and learning ability.   

1.5  Child Friendly school framework

(Orientation on CFSF to GP/NP, their strategy, implementation in school and monitoring)

1.6  Challenges

  • There is no uniformity in reporting template from donor; separate reporting templates for MEAL and program team which has created hurdles during report writing.  
  • Though we have been regularly coordinating with municipalities for the provision of basic requirements; they are delaying due to lack of skills and other political influences as a results schools are facing many problems like sitting arrangements, basic wash facilities, etc.
  • Lack of support and motivation to children from parents to attend and retain in schools regularly and also their involvement in learning activities.
  • High expectations for snacks and stipend from stakeholders during any meetings. Teachers have requested for minimum stipend while conducting long trainings.
  • No proper utilization of available resources such as reading and learning materials supported by different organizations.     
  • Still many schools are facing problems related to lack class rooms and teachers due to which learning achievements seems zero.
  • Due to the outbreak of CORONA Virus schools were closed before the time and planned activities were postponed.

1.7  Lessons Learned

  • Regular coordination with palika’s and key stakeholders for effective and efficient program implementation.
  • Frequent interaction and coordination with parents and other local level stakeholders is essential for their involvement and adequate support for children for quality education. 
  • Pre and proper planning are necessary for effective implementation of activities.
  • School and teachers should be monitored and directed by district and center level for effective school and class running.
  • There should be minimum stipend as per govt. riles for govt. stakeholders while conducting long trainings.
  • Frequent visit to school and municipalities is essential for effective and efficient program implementation.

1.8           Way Forward

  • Regular coordination and sensitization meeting with parents and local level stakeholders for their support and involvement in school and learning improvements for children.
  • Support teachers technically and influence them to use locally available materials and reading/learning materials provided by different organizations.
  • Advocating municipalities and education focal point not to provide school holidays during local fair and any events and influence to provide basic requirements.
  • Work as support system or participate in planning meetings regarding quality education.


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